FROM: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater

9222 F. KIebsieIIa Membrane Filter Proc

Klebsiclla bacteria belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae and

are included in the total coliform group. The outermost layer of

Klebsiella bacteria consists of a large polysaccharide capsule, a

characteristic that distinguishes this genus from most other bac-

teria in this fami1y: this capsule provides some measure of pro-

tection from disinfectants. Klebsiella bacteria are commonly as-

sociated with coliforrn regrowth in large water supply distribution


Klebsiellae may he opportunistic pathogens that can give rise

to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract, and several other types

of human infection. Approximately 60 to 80% of all Klebsiella

from feces and from clinical specimens are positive in the fecal

coliform test and are Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Klebsiella bacteria also are widely distributed in nature, occur-

ring in soil, water, grain, vegetation, etc. Wood pulp, paper mills,

textile finishing plants, and sugar-cane processing operations con-

tain large numbers of klebsiellae in their effluents (104 to 106),

and Klebsiella sp. are often the predominant coliform in such effluents

Rapid quantitation may be achieved in the MF procedure by

modifying M-FC agar base through substitution of inositol for

lactose and adding carbenicillin or by using M-Kleb agar. These

methods reduce the necessity for biochemical testing of pure

strains. Preliminary verification of differentiated colonies is rec-


1. Apparatus

a. Culture dishes: See Section 9222B.le for specifications,

b. Filtration units: See Section 9222B.lf

2. Materials and Culture Medium

a. Modified M-FC agar (M-FC[C agar): This

he available in dehydrated form and may require

the basic ingredients: